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2008.11.17 (Mon)

private attorney general

"... While Congress can constitutionally authorize no one, in the absence of an actual justiciable controversy, to bring a suit for the judicial determination either of the constitutionality of a statute or the scope of powers conferred by a statute upon government officers, it can constitutionally authorize one of its own officials, such as the Attorney General, to bring a proceeding to prevent another official from acting in violation of his statutory powers; for then an actual controversy exists, and the Attorney General can properly be vested with authority, in such a controversy, to vindicate the interest of the public or the government. Instead of designating the Attorney General, or some other public officer, to bring such proceedings, Congress can constitutionally enact a statute conferring on any non-official person, or on a designated group of non-official persons, authority to bring a suit to prevent action by an officer in violation of his statutory powers; for then, in like manner, there is an actual controversy, and there is nothing constitutionally prohibiting Congress from empowering any person, offcial or not, to institute a proceeding involving such a controversy, even if the sole purpose is to vindicate the public interest. Such persons, so authorized, are, so to speak, private Attorney Generals."
Associated Indus. of N.Y. State, Inc. v. Ickes, 134 F.2d 694, 704 (2d Cir. 1943) (Frank, J.), vacated as moot, 320 U.S. 707 (1943).
元々は"cases or controversies"要件の問題として出てきたのか。積極的に「私人に法を実現させるべし」というよりは、消極的に「(1)法を実現させるべく私人に授権する立法を議会が行うことも許容されるし、(2)その場合の訴訟は争訟性の要件を満たす」、と。

というか、Jerome Frankが言い出しっぺだったんだ。
"private attorney general"で検索をかけると、これより早いのが2件引っ掛かるがガセっぽい。逆に、同年(1943年)の判決で既にこのフレーズに言及する判決が現れており、受容のペースは速かったものと思われる。

テーマ : アメリカ合衆国 - ジャンル : 政治・経済

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